In Kohler Co. v. Superior Court, 29 Cal. App. 5th 55 (2018), the Second District of the Court of Appeal of California considered whether the lower court properly allowed homeowners to bring class action claims under the Right to Repair Act (the Act) against a manufacturer of a plumbing fixture for alleged defects in the product. After an extensive analysis of the language of the Act, the court found that class action claims under the Act are not allowed if the product was completely manufactured offsite. Since the subject fixture was completely manufactured offsite, the Court of Appeal reversed the lower court’s decision. The court’s holding establishes that rights and remedies set forth in the Right to Repair Act are not available for class action claims alleging defects in products completely manufactured offsite.
In Kohler Co., homeowners instituted a class action against Kohler, the manufacturer of water pressure and temperature regulating valves that were installed into their homes during original construction. The class action was filed on behalf of all owners of residential dwellings in California in which these Kohler valves were installed as part of original construction. The complaint asserted, among other claims, a cause of action under the Act. Kohler filed a motion for anti-class certification on the ground that causes of actions under the Act cannot be certified as a class action. The trial court denied the motion with respect to the Act but certified its ruling for appellate review. Kohler filed a petition with the Court of Appeals, arguing that certain sections of the Act explicitly exclude class action claims under the Act.
The Act revised and codified the laws applicable to construction defect claims related to newly constructed homes. The Act sets forth the standards for home construction, as well as rights and remedies for homeowners. When the Act was passed, it essentially became the exclusive remedy to individual homeowners for losses resulting from construction defects within their homes. The Act also established a builder’s right to attempt to repair a defect before a homeowner can file an action in court.
One of the essential purposes of the Act is to have construction defect disputes resolved expeditiously, and, if possible, to avoid litigation. The Act is specific as to the types of claims that fall under its purview and explicitly excludes certain types of claims. Section 896 of the Act states that the “title does not apply in any action seeking recovery solely for a defect in a manufactured product located within or adjacent to a structure.” The Act defines a “manufactured product” as “a product that is completely manufactured offsite.” In addition, section 931 identifies certain claims that are not covered by the Act, which include class actions. However, the last sentence of that section states that for “any class action claims that address solely the incorporation of a defective component into a residence, the named and unnamed class members need not comply with this chapter.”
The court acknowledged that while section 931 excludes class actions generally, the last sentence of that section sets forth an exception for class actions pertaining “solely [to] the incorporation of a defective component into a residence.” However, the court found that this provision needed to be reconciled with section 896, which excluded claims solely for defects within manufactured products. The court noted that a manufactured product qualifies as a defective component. Thus, in an effort to harmonize the two sections, the court held that the class action exception applies only to those claims related solely to the incorporation into the home of a defective component other than a product that is completely manufactured offsite. Based on this interpretation of the statute, the court reversed the lower court’s decision and granted Kohler’s motion for anti-class certification.
The Kohler Co. case narrowed plaintiffs’ ability to use the Act to pursue class action claims. The court’s interpretation of the Act establishes that plaintiffs cannot use the Act to assert class action claims for defects in manufactured products. Thus, the Kohler Co. decision reminds us that a cause of action under the Act is not permitted for any claims, whether individual or class actions, against manufacturers for alleged defects of products completely manufactured offsite. On the flipside, this decision also reminds us that product manufacturers are not afforded the defenses of the Act.